The principal factors and dynamics that influence migration in West Africa: A focus on Gambia and Nigeria

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Developing countries typically need both human and capital to develop, as the two resources complement each other in creating prosperity. The human capital resource plays a significant role by utilizing the natural and physical capital resources efficiently in the production process. When human capital resource becomes unavailable or scarce, through brain drain, migration or other means, economic growth slows down, compromising economic development. This research explored the factors that accounts for migration of such human resources from Africa, particularly Gambia and Nigeria, to Europe and other high-income countries. This research utilized a quantitative research method, involving the collection and analysis of both primary and secondary data. The primary data were obtained from Gambia and Nigeria through questionnaires. The secondary data on migration, unemployment, GDP, and others were obtained from the World Bank. The primary data showed that most Gambians and Nigerians are likely to migrate to high-income countries for economic reasons. The correlational analysis from the secondary data revealed that a positive relationship exists between unemployment and migration for Gambia and Nigeria. Other factors such as the pursuit of education, crisis and natural disasters also influence migration. Since the results show that the most active and working population of Gambia and Nigeria mostly migrate, and human resources is lost, it is recommended that policies in accelerating white and blue-color jobs be implemented in these countries.
Undergraduate thesis submitted to the Department of Business Administration, Ashesi University, in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration, May 2021
unemployment, migration process, youth, West Africa