Multidimensional object storage and retrieval for spatial databases using coordinate transformation: Performance comparison with the use of R-tree and KD-tree indices

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In recent times, spatial data has atrracted enough attention that it is being used almost everywhere right from building simple applications such as booking a taxi ride to complex applications such as autonomous driving. While spatial databases have rapidly proliferated in the past decade, extensive research has been conducted on the use of data structures to design efficient algorithms to optimise the storing, retrieving and displaying of spatial data. Research has led to the development of multidimensional index structures such as R-tree and KD-tree among others. Research shows that the GIST framework adopted by Database Management Systems performs slower than the custom implementation of the multidimensional index structures on which the framework was guilt. As a bold step in relying on a custom implementation of the multidimensional index structures, this thesis considered the problem of handling spatial data in geographic coordinates form (i.e. latitudes and longitudes) in a custom implementation of two index structures: R-tree and Kd-tree, as these structure cannot handle effectively geographic coordinates by design. The thesis used coordinate transformation to convert the geographic coordinates into cartesian form for effective handling by both structures mentioned above. Experiments were also conducted to measure the performances of the proposed algorithm that merges coordinate transformation and the custom implementation of R-tree and Kd-tree in terms of object storage, retrieval and removal time costs.
Undergraduate thesis submitted to the Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, Ashesi University, in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science, May 2022