A tracking and billing system for commercial vehicles

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The Ghanaian transit system poses certain challenges to users, as it usually has passengers waiting at bus stops for a bus to their destination, for an unknown amount of time because there is no means of tracking the buses. The system is also problematic as passengers usually argue with bus conductors for change, when payments are made in high denominations, because there are no cashless payment methods available. This makes planning of journeys difficult to users of this system. Existing systems generally use a GPS receiver and cellular data network to transmit location information. Other public transportation systems incorporate additional systems that allow passengers to make cashless payments. This project solves the tracking problem on the Ghanaian transportation system by installing a GPS enabled device in the vehicle which would transmit the location coordinates to a server using long-range radio (LoRa) waves instead of the cellular data network. For payments, a system is developed that permits users to make payments using an NFC card or by scanning a QR code, unique to each bus which would then make a deduction from the users account.
Capstone Project submitted to the Department of Engineering, Ashesi University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, April 2019
vehicle tracking system, public transportation, Ghana, web-based application, mobile application, hardware, LoRa technology, GPS